AUTHORITY OF JURISDICTION
ASTM E 814
ASTM E 84
THROUGH PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM
Some firestop materials form a char with thermal
insulation characteristics, which helps fill voids when exposed to heat.
A term used to refer to the through-penetration firestop systems that have been
tested and meet test criteria of ASTM E 814 by an independent, recognized laboratory.
Additionally, an authority having jurisdiction may also make specific product evaluation
and determine compliance with appropriate standards. Products alone are not tested
systems/approved firestop methods unless tested to ASTM E 814 and classified for use in
the specific application.
AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION:
The final authority who writes the "Certificate of Occupancy Permit in a
municipality. This can be the building code official/inspector or fire inspector. Since
each municipality is different, the authority having jurisdiction may also be
different from town to town. Check with local officials to verify who has final
jurisdiction. Industrial facilities and hospitals may have other
Fire test method, Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials,
conducted to evaluate the ability of a fire-resistive floor or wall assembly to perform
its barrier function, resisting the passage of heat, flames, hot gases, and smoke in a
ASTM E 814:
Fire Tests of Through Penetration Firestops or ASTM E 814 is the
complementary test to ASTM E 119 that evaluates penetrations through a tested,
fire-resistive (ASTM E 119 tested) wall or floor assembly. The test involves a
standard time-temperature curve, a hose stream test and assigns ratings based on
T (temperature rise) and F (flame occurrence through the
firestop/penetration). The objective of specifying this type of system is to return the
floor or wall to the compartment's original fire rating. An L (air leakage)
rating can also be assigned. Air leakage simulates smoke movement through a penetration,
measured in cubic feet per minute for authorities having jurisdiction to make
ASTM E 84:
Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials or ASTM E 84
usually refers to the flame spread or smoke developed characteristics of a product (i.e.
wallpaper, coatings, carpet, etc.). NOTE: ASTM E 84 is not the same as ASTM E 814,
Fire Tests of Through Penetration Firestops.
The distance from the inside edge of the opening (floor/wall) to the outside of the
Model building codes are adopted by each municipality from the major code
organizations. The major code authorities are BOCA (Building Officials and Code
Administrators) primarily in the Midwest, ICBO (International Council of Building Code
Officials) in the West and Indiana, and SBCCI (Southern Building Code Congress,
International) in the South. The local municipality or state can choose which major
building code is adopted, or can adapt its own.
A characteristic of a material that is flexible and permits movement.
A characteristic of a material that blocks heat by chemical absorption and moisture
release for fire resistance.
To meet actual field conditions, manufacturers may need to make a rec- ommendation
based on available testing that seems to approximate the condition encountered.
Testing laboratories should verify judgements by manufacturers for validity. Some
jurisdictions only allow judgements if there is no tested system available for the
FORMING MATERIALS: Materials used under or
beside a firestop system to either hold the system in place during application, improve
fire resistance, or both. Mineral wool, ceramic fiber and other materials are used.
Consult the manufacturers specific tested system data for type, thickness and
density of material allowed.
F RATING: A
rating usually expressed in hours indicating a specific length of time that
a fire-resistive barrier can withstand fire before being consumed or before permitting the
passage of flame through an opening in the assembly.
T RATING: A
rating usually expressed in hours indicating the length of time that the temperature on
the non-fire side of a fire-rated assembly does not exceed 325F above ambient
L RATING: Amount of
air leakage through a penetration, measured in cubic feet per minute. The test is
administered at ambient and 400F for validity due to variances in per- formance of
firestop systems at different temperatures.
INTUMESCENCE: A characteristic of certain fire
barrier products that, when exposed to heat, expands to fill a void in the penetration
caused by the deformation or combustion of the through penetrating item. When exposed to
heat, intumescent materials expand at various rates to form a hard char to seal voids and
provide hourly rated protection.
LATEX: A water emulsion of a synthetic rubber
material that is manufactured into a sealant.
NFPA: National Fire Protection Association,
based in Quincy, Mass., author of The Life Safety Code.
RESTRICTING COLLAR: A metal device supplied by
the firestop system manufacturer to mount firestop from the outside or underside of a
SLEEVES: Sleeves, as required, must
be part of the tested system or approved for use by the manufacturer of the firestop
THROUGH PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM: "A
specific field-erected construction consisting of an assemblage of materials to prevent
the spread of fire through openings made in floors or walls to accommodate through
penetrating items, (i.e. pipes, electrical conduits, blanks, etc.) using ASTM E 814
(Test Standard UL 1479) as the test method.
Z-CLIPS: Z-shaped clips that support a firestop
wrap strip material in a firestop system, sometimes without mineral wool forming.
PULLOUT STRENGTH: Firestop systems
that need to be fastened to walls and floors will specify a fastener pullout strength
minimum value. Additionally, there are require- ments for the type of fastener, usually
carbon or stainless-steel. Lead, alu- minum and others may melt and not function properly
in fire conditions.
BUILDING SEPARATION WALL
FIRE BARRIER WALL
FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY
FIRE RESISTANCE RATING
MEMBRANE PENETRATION FIRESTOP
FIRE RESISTIVE JOINT SYSTEM
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE
FIRE SEPARATION WALL
The following are additional terms defined by the International Building
BUILDING SEPARATION WALL: A
fire-resistance rated wall, having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire
and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof.
DRAFT STOP: A material, device or construction
installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of
building components such as crawl spaces, floor- ceiling assemblies, and roof-ceiling
assemblies and attics.
FIREBLOCKING: Building materials installed to
resist the free passage of flame and gasses to other areas of the building through small
FIRE AREA: The aggregate floor area enclosed
and bounded by building separation walls, fire barrier walls, exterior walls or
fire-resis- tance rated horizontal assemblies of a building.
FIRE BARRIER WALL: A fire- resistance rated
assembly of materials having protected openings which is designed to restrict the spread
FIRE DAMPER: A device, installed in an
air distribution system, designed to close automatically upon detection of heat, to
interrupt migratory airflow, and to restrict the passage of flame. A combination fire and
smoke damper meets the requirement of both.
FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY: Any combination of a fire
door, frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide a specific degree
of fire protection to the opening.
FIRE DOOR: The door component of a fire door
FIRE PARTITION: A vertical assembly of
materials having protected openings and designed to restrict the spread of fire.
FIRE RESISTANCE: That property of materials or
their assemblies which prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or
flames under conditions of use.
FIRE RESISTANCE RATING: The period of time a
building or building component maintains the ability to confine a fire or continues to
perform a given structural function or both, as determined by tests prescribed in Section
MEMBRANE PENETRATION: An opening made
through one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly.
MEMBRANE PENETRATION FIRESTOP: A material,
device or construction installed to resist, for a prescribed time period, the passage of
flame, heat, and hot gases through openings in a protective membrane in order to
accommodate cables, cable trays, conduit, tubing, or pipes.
PENETRATION FIRESTOP: A though-penetration
firestop or a membrane penetration firestop.
SELF-CLOSING: As applied to a fire door or
other opening, means equipped with an approved device that will ensure closing after
having been opened.
SHAFT: An enclosed space extending through one
or more stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in successive floors, or
floors and roof.
FIRE RESISTIVE JOINT SYSTEM: An assemblage of
specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire rated in accordance with
ASTM E 119 to resist, for a prescribed period of time, the spread of fire through joints
made in or between fire rated assemblies.
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE: The distance in feet
measured from the building face to the closest interior lot line, to the centerline of a
street, alley or public way, or to an imaginary line between two buildings on the
FIRE SEPARATION WALL: See fire barrier
wall. Transitional term replaced by fire barrier wall.
FIRE WALL: See building separation
wall. Traditional term replaced by building separation wall
SMOKE BARRIER: A smoke barrier consists of
walls, partitions, floors and openings therein as will prevent the transmission of smoke
or gases through the construction.
SMOKE COMPARTMENT: A
smoke compartment is a space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides,
top and bottom.
SPLICE: The result of a
factory and/or field method of joining or connecting two or more lengths of a
fire-resistive joint system into a continuous entity.
FIRE WINDOW: A window constructed and glazed to
give protection against the passage of fire.
JOINT: The linear opening
in or between adjacent fire-resistance rated assemblies that is designed to allow
independent movement of the building, in any plane, caused by thermal, seismic, wind
loading or any other loading.
THROUGH-PENETRATION: An opening
that passes through an entire assembly.